What are POPs?
Effects on humans
Marine Environment:

  • Sources of POPs
  • Fate of POPs

  • History
    POPs Chemicals:
  • Aldrin and Dieldrin
  • Endrin
  • Chlordane
  • DDT
  • Heptachlor
  • Hexachlorobenzene
  • Mirex
  • Toxaphene
  • PCBs
  • Dioxins and Furans

  • Analytical Methods

    Monitoring and Assessment
    Policy
    Planning
    Regulatory framework
    Implementation and Enforcement:

  • Management:
  • Regulations and Procedures
  • Operational Measures:
  • Best Management Practices

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  • Best Agriculture Practices

  • Best Industrial Practices
  • Case Studies

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    Regional Seas
    Bibliography:

  • General
  • Specialized
    Glossary
  • Endrin

    Introduction
    Effects on Humans
    Effects on The Aquatic Environment
    Monitoring Techniques and Standards
    Safety Cards
    Links

    Introduction

    Cancer Classification

    Toxic Effects
    Neurobehavioral Reproductive Others

    IARC*(1987):
    Group 3: Unclassifiable as to carcinogenicity in humans.

    Humans:

    occupational exposure:

    • twitching muscles, mental confusion, seizures and, possible death. (WFPHA, 2000)

    Rats:

    endrin fed in the diet at 0, 0.1, 1, 3 mg/kg over three generations:

    • increased mortality of the second and third generations of rats dosed with endrin. (WHO, 1992).

    Pheasants:

    diet containing endrin at 10 mg/kg:

    • reduced eggs production and chick survival. (WHO, 1992).

    Hamsters:

    single oral dose 5 mg/kg bw for three times during the first 10 days of gestation:

    • foetuses demonstrated developmental abnormalities. (WHO, 1992).

    Dogs:

    4 mg/kg diet 6 month:

    • hepatic abnormalities enlarged liver in rats enlarged kidneys in dogs. (WHO, 1992).

    *IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer.

    Endrin is a rodenticide used to control mice and voles, and an insecticide used on cotton, rice, and maize. Closely related to aldrin and dieldrin, endrin is the most toxic of the three in the aquatic environment (96-h LC50 for fish, aquatic invertebrates and phytoplankton mostly below 1 microgram/litre compared with values ranging from 1.1 to 53 micrograms/litre 96-h LC50 in fish for aldrin and dieldrin. WHO, 1992, 1982) and its metabolites are more toxic than endrin itself. In soils endrin is extremely persistent, with a half-life as long as twelve years. In cases of extreme poisoning endrin residues have been found in adipose tissues, but the majority of endrin is metabolised within 24 hours and removed from the body. (WFPHA, World Federation of Public Health Associations, 2000).

    Effects on Humans

    The nervous system is the chief target of acute endrin poisoning. Exposure of humans to a toxic dose may lead within a few hours to such signs and symptoms of intoxication as excitability and convulsions, and death may follow within 2-12 hours after exposure if appropriate treatment is not administered immediately. (WHO, 1992). Endrin might also contribute to improper bone formation, although no human data exist for this effect. (WFPHA, 2000). Endrins's ADI is 0.0002 mg/kg bw. (WHO, 1994).

    Effects on The Aquatic Environment

    Endrin is very toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and phytoplankton (96-h LC50 for fish, aquatic invertebrates and phytoplankton mostly below 1 microgram/litre). Fish kills were observed in areas of agricultural run-off and industrial discharge; and declining populations of brown pelicans (in Louisiana, USA) and sandwich terns (in the Netherlands) have been attributed to exposure to endrin in combination with other halogenated chemicals. (WHO, 1992).
    Endrin has been detected in rainwater from Creek Lake in northern Saskatchewan, and has been reported in a fresh water lake in the Canadian Arctic. It has been found to bioaccumulate in species from algae, pouch snail, flathead minnow, rainbow trout, Virginia oyster, and sheepshead minnow. (WFPHA, 2000).

    The table below shows some bioconcentration factors for endrin (EHC 130, WHO, 1992).


    Species
    Concentration in Water (micrograms/litre)
    Duration of Exposure
    Bioconcentration Factor

    Clam
    (Mercenaria mercenaria)
    1 5 days 480

    Mussel
    (Hyridella australis)

    10 24 days 38
    Eastern oyster
    (Crassostrea virginica)
    0.05 7 days 2780
    Water flea
    (Daphnia magna)
    1.0 1 days 2600
    Fathead minnow
    (Pimephales portals)
    0.015 _ 10 000

    Monitoring Techniques and Standards

    The HSDB, Hazardous Substances Data Bank: type Endrin

    This site reports a full list of information on the substance as: Human Health Effects, Animal Toxicity Studies, Environmental Fate & Exposure, Environmental Standards & Regulations, Chemical/Physical Properties, Chemical Safety & Handling, Occupational Exposure Standards, Laboratory Methods, Synonyms and Identifiers.

    Toxicology report with toxicity data from the Vermont Safety Information Resources, Inc.

    This site provides a list or toxicity tests results, references for toxicity literature reviews, USA standards and regulations, occupational exposure limits in different states all over the world, and reference to NIHOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, analytical standard methods.

    Safety Cards

    ICSC, International Chemical Safety Cards European Union version

    The International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS) access to
    International Chemical Safety Cards: two pages data sheets on pure substances from the ILO/WHO/UNEP International Program on Chemical Safety (IPCS).

    Links
    Endrin profile of The Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR), an agency of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
    FAQ on Endrin by the Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry (ATSDR). Also available the chemical stereo structure.
    Endrin profile of Scorecard. This service provides detailed information on chemicals, including all the chemicals used in large amounts in the United States and all the chemicals regulated under major environmental laws.
    Toxicology data network find out more profiles and specialised literature in this site linked to more than ten hazardous chemical databases.
    Endrin IARC, International Agency for Research on Cancer, Summary Evaluation.

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