*IARC: International Agency for Research on Cancer.
Endrin is a rodenticide used to control mice and voles, and an insecticide used on cotton, rice, and maize. Closely related to aldrin and dieldrin, endrin is the most toxic of the three in the aquatic environment (96-h LC50 for fish, aquatic invertebrates and phytoplankton mostly below 1 microgram/litre compared with values ranging from 1.1 to 53 micrograms/litre 96-h LC50 in fish for aldrin and dieldrin. WHO, 1992, 1982) and its metabolites are more toxic than endrin itself. In soils endrin is extremely persistent, with a half-life as long as twelve years. In cases of extreme poisoning endrin residues have been found in adipose tissues, but the majority of endrin is metabolised within 24 hours and removed from the body. (WFPHA, World Federation of Public Health Associations, 2000).
The nervous system is the chief target of acute endrin poisoning. Exposure of humans to a toxic dose may lead within a few hours to such signs and symptoms of intoxication as excitability and convulsions, and death may follow within 2-12 hours after exposure if appropriate treatment is not administered immediately. (WHO, 1992). Endrin might also contribute to improper bone formation, although no human data exist for this effect. (WFPHA, 2000). Endrins's ADI is 0.0002 mg/kg bw. (WHO, 1994).
Endrin is very toxic to fish, aquatic invertebrates and phytoplankton
(96-h LC50 for fish, aquatic invertebrates and phytoplankton mostly below
1 microgram/litre). Fish kills were observed in areas of agricultural
run-off and industrial discharge; and declining populations of brown pelicans
(in Louisiana, USA) and sandwich terns (in the Netherlands) have been
attributed to exposure to endrin in combination with other halogenated
chemicals. (WHO, 1992).
The table below shows some bioconcentration factors for endrin (EHC 130, WHO, 1992).
The HSDB, Hazardous Substances Data Bank: type Endrin
This site reports a full list of information on the substance as: Human
Health Effects, Animal Toxicity Studies, Environmental Fate & Exposure,
Environmental Standards & Regulations, Chemical/Physical Properties,
Chemical Safety & Handling, Occupational Exposure Standards, Laboratory
Methods, Synonyms and Identifiers.
Toxicology report with toxicity data from the Vermont Safety Information Resources, Inc.
This site provides a list or toxicity tests results, references for toxicity literature reviews, USA standards and regulations, occupational exposure limits in different states all over the world, and reference to NIHOSH, National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health, analytical standard methods.
ICSC, International Chemical Safety Cards European Union version
The International Occupational Safety and Health Information Centre (CIS)
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